Ranging up to 15 feet in length and 2000 pounds, Atlantic bluefin tuna are one of the top predators in the open ocean food chain. They have a specialized blood vessel structure that lets them maintain a higher body temperature than the surrounding water. This adaptation gives them an advantage when hunting in cold waters, thus allowing them to move more quickly than other fish. Evolutionary adaptations like this have made the tuna one of the fastest swimmers in the ocean.
The bluefin tuna literally can’t stop swimming. It lacks the ability to pass water over its gills when it is motionless. The gills extract vital oxygen, so the tuna must swim or die. Swimming forward with its mouth open allows water to continually pass over the gills providing a critical fresh supply of oxygen.
A list of some facts about these fish provides insight into the ecological and cultural niches they fill:
They can live for up to 35 years
Females can produce up to 10 million eggs a year
They are characteristically torpedo-shaped
Adults feed on mackerel and herring
Sushi lovers consider the Atlantic bluefin tuna a prized delicacy
These facts provide insight into why the bluefin tuna is so successful as a species, but why they are now a threatened species. These fish have a limited number of predators to worry about, but unfortunately for them, humans are one of those predators. The Atlantic tuna population suffered a 60% decline between 1974 and 1990 due to overfishing and poor management of the fisheries. The good news is that the populations have recovered somewhat since about 2009.
Other species have seen a similar fate at the hands of Homo sapiens. But the graph above is a great example of human impact on the earth’s ecological balance. The results don’t just flow one way. As a species, humans represent a two-edged sword that can cut both ways. The Anthropocene extinction currently underway does not have to end in a massive collapse of
The species Homo sapiens smart, adaptable, and greedy. If our societies can maximize the first two of these characteristics and control the last one, then many things are possible.
Oceana: Atlantic Bluefin Tuna – https://oceana.org/marine-life/ocean-fishes/atlantic-bluefin-tuna
The Story of Atlantic Bluefin – Science-based management will ensure a healthy future. https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2017/10/the-story-of-atlantic-bluefin